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Russia's forestry develops in the transformation,Its policy changes will affect the Chinese wood market
2018-04-09    Su Haiying    China Green Times

  Russia is one of the most important source countries in my country,The changes in its policy will have an important impact on our country,Especially Russia's recent frequently introduced log export restriction policy。Pay close attention to changes in Russian related policies,helps to ensure the safety of wood in my country。

  Corporate transport wood in winter  Su Haiying Photo

  Russia is the largest country in the world's forest resources,But the development of forestry for a long time does not match its rich forest resources。

  According to the United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization2015 year statistics, Russian forest area8.15billion hectares, about the world20%, the number of forest resources area is the world's first. Forest accumulation814.88 billion cubic meters, which accounts for about the world21%, the forest accumulated second in the world.

  Russian forest landscape

  Russian forest distribution is uneven,It is mainly distributed in the scarce population in Siberia and the Far East、Remote areas with underdeveloped economy。Forest area of ​​Siberia and the Far East in Russia5.58billion hectares, accounting for about the total area of ​​Russia's forest72%. Russian forests are mainly coniferous forests, and coniferous forest area5.26billion hectares,It is mainly distributed in Siberia and the Far East。The advantages of the Russian coniferous forest are deciduous pine,The area of ​​almost exceeds the total area of ​​other coniferous trees。Russian hard broad -leaved forest area1818.3810,000 hectares,Mainly distributed in the Far East、The along the coast of the Volga River and the Southern District。The superior tree species of hard and broad -leaved forests are oak trees,Among them55%distributed in European parts of Russia,Most of the remaining oak forests are distributed in the Far East,The main tree species are Mongolian。Some birchs with hard materials are still growing in the Westburia and Far East.,Ru Yue Hua、Black Leather Birch, etc.,Its area is second only to oak trees。Russian soft broad -leaved forest area2.27billion hectares, its advantageous tree species are birch, followed by Shanyang.

  Forestry development is inseparable from the change of the entire socioeconomic economy。From the historical perspective,With politics、Economic and social changes,Russia's forestry has experienced3Times.

  Russian birch forest

  The first transformation: from the planned economy to the transition period of the market economy

  1990year to2000year,is a transition period from Russia from a planned economy to a market economy transition,Its forestry has also changed dramatically。First is the change of the management system,Reform the Forest Committee of the Ministry of Ecology into the Federal Forestry Bureau of the Russian Federation,below81Regional forestry institutions. The second is Yu1997The Russian Forest Code was promulgated in the year,This has formed a codes as the Basic Law,Complete forest protection legal system with forest regulations and policy and regulations。Third, the lease system replaces the raw material base,Forest resource utilization changes to paid use,Learrs against cultivation、Responsibility for maintenance and ecology,To ensure the sustainable use of forests。Fourth, it is legal to determine the paid use of forest resources,Clear payable3Item expenses: forest resource update fee、Prevention and treatment of disaster and protection fees、Resource usage fee and rent。Five is the change of forest ownership,The Land Law stipulates that the forest land is divided into two types of the federal and the federal subjects。

  Second transition: the perfect period of the market economy

  The second transition from Russia's forestry from2000year to2008year,is the perfect period of the market economy。Putin came to power,Focus on stabilizing the social and political situation,Gradually establish a vertical power system in the country,Accompanied by the economic system transition,Forestry management system and investment system also changed accordingly。

  First, the management system is constantly changing.2000year,Russia implements the centralized centralized administrative reform,The Federal Forestry Bureau, which is responsible for the independent system of national forestry work,Forestry management functions are classified as the Ministry of Natural Resources。2004year,President Putin reforms the federal government's administrative institution again,The Ministry of Natural Resources is still responsible for the national forestry administrative work,The Federal Forestry Bureau and Natural Resources Utilization Supervision Bureau were set up under the Ministry of Natural Resources,Following the formulation of forestry policy、Policy execution and legal supervision of this3The function of species has formed a new pattern of forestry management.2008year,Russian administrative agency reform again,The Federal Forestry Bureau is placed at the Ministry of Agriculture。

  The second is Yu2006Amended the new "Russian Forest Forest Code" annually,Put some forest management rights to local governments,The responsibility of maintaining the forest has been shared with the user of the forest resource。Utilization of forest、Update、Protection、Preservation and management regulations,All reflect the legislative concept of ecological value priority。

  Third, the Russian Federal local government can auction the use of forest land,Forest land lease period from10year to49Never wait.Use forests at the Russian Federation to pay fees,Including paying rental fees or forestry sales agreement fees。

  Fourth is to clarify the rights and obligations of forest land leasers.Forest Law encourages the development of long -term lease,Learrs with long -term planning are preferred into the field of wood utilization,It is stipulated that the lessee must bear recovery、BC Game appObligations for protecting and protecting the forest。

  Five is to stipulate the limits of wood harvesting.2003year,The Russian government has limited to the amount of wood harvesting,To protect the country's forest resources and ecological environment。2007year7month16Day, the Russian Department of Natural Resources promulgated184Number resolution,Strict regulations on wood harvesting,The stipulated that the wood harvesting must be consistent with the logging limit specified in the forest land rental contract and the forestry plan。This resolution stipulates the rules of mature forests and forest forests。The maximum width of different cutting areas according to different forest vegetation types、The maximum cutting area of ​​the cut area、During the interval, etc.,Detailed regulations。

  The third transformation: the period of change of economic growth

  2008year to2020The year is Russia's third transformation period,Russia's forestry is the same as Russia's economy and society,I am experiencing a period of change of economic growth。to2008year,The Russian government has accumulated a lot of funds,People's living standards greatly increase。Fully reversing the deformity economic structure that depends on raw materials and energy,Make up on the agenda。

  2008year2month, Putin announced the "Russia2020Annual Development Strategy ",For the first time, the country's innovation and development strategy was officially established。Along with the reform of the entire socioeconomic and economy,Russian forestry also ushered in new opportunities for reform and innovation。

  1 is to formulate "2020The Russian Forest Industry Development Strategy ",Put the development of the development of the development of the wood in the industry's rejuvenation,The development of the pulp and papermaking industry as the goal of industrial development。Change the existing forest industry structure,Vigorously develop the pulp paper processing industry,Establish a large forestry deep processing complex。

  The second is the reform of the forestry management system.2011year,The Federal Government will draw the Forestry Bureau to the Federal Ministry of Natural Resources and Ecology,and make major adjustments to the internal institutions of the Forestry Bureau,Adjusted Forestry Bureau12Act.

  Third is forestry investment reform,Promotion with privatization,Forestry Investment has shifted from national investment to private investment,The state will give appropriate investment subsidies according to the actual situation。During this period,Due to the gradual development zone of the enterprise、North、Siberia and Far East Transfer,Equipment、Increase the cost of materials and environmental protection measures,Make each harvest1The investment of wood in cubic meters has increased4times.

  Fourth, the Russian government has increased its support for the forestry industry,Especially investment in forestry deep processing industry。The Russian Forestry Bureau prepares federal budget every two years,Plan for the production bc game apkof all Russia forestry。

  Museum in the Russian Forest Su Haiying Photo

  Russian Leisure Park   Su Haiying Photo

  Five is that the Russian government has formulated a series of economic support policies,Including the establishment of national special funds,Used for excellent seedling subsidy、Yinglin、Protective facilities and equipment、Base Construction、Promotion of new varieties and new technologies, etc.; increase financial support for enterprises; formulate preferential measures to attract foreign funds。

  Six is ​​to increase the export control of logs.2017year1month18On the day, Russian Prime Minister Medvedev signed the No. 119Act, the specified diameter exceeds15cm, length exceeds1Russian birch's Russian birch is included in Russia for prohibiting export product list。At the same time,The Russian government formulates new tariff quotas and export tariffs on some wood types in the Far East,Only the export share of wood processing products is not lower than the total exports20%Enterprises provide quotas, which will gradually increase this share to in the future35%, the plan is from2019year1month1Gradually increase the additional export tariffs.

  Seven is to increase the illegal mortar of wood.2013year12month20Day,The Russian National Duma passed the Russian Federal Law "Amendment to the Russian Federal Forest Law and the Russian Federal Administrative Violation Law",Supplement the statistics and logos of wood,established a national automation information system with a unified wood statistics and wood transactions,Wood transportation required by any kind of transportation,All must be implemented with the order。


Autumn Russia  Su Haiying Photo

  Follow: The potential impact of Russian forestry transformation

  my country is implementing a policy of comprehensively stopping the natural forest commercial harvesting policy,Russia is one of our most important source of logs,The changes in its policy are led by us,In particular, it has recently introduced log restrictions on log exports。my country's government and enterprises should pay close attention to changes in Russian related policies,Guarantee wood safety。

  1 is the change of tariffs。From the continuous adjustment of Russian wood export tariff policy, it can be seen that the change of its log export policy。Russia hopes to get rid of the dividend brought by the outlet mode of the raw material,Instead of vigorously developing domestic wood deep processing industry。This,The Chinese government should actively join negotiations,Seeking benefits for the enterprise,And by guiding Chinese companies to invest in Russia,Increase the import volume of Russian deep processing products,At the same time, improve my country's right to speak in international trade,Guarantee my country's wood safety strategy。Chinese enterprises must be forward -looking,should actively change the past business mode,Get benefits in the change。


  Second is the implementation of the Logged Act.Russia's newly implemented "Logging Act" Requirements,Track and monitor the source of logs,Promote foreign importers to choose low -risk suppliers,Therefore, to a certain extent, BC Game appreduce the risk of illegal logging and related trade。"Logging Act" required all wood to harvest records must be registered,and only allowed wood transportation of official transportation files。This measure will effectively solve the problem of incomplete transportation documents in the past; online declaration of wood transactions will help importers to track the source information of the log,Solve the problem of unknown source of the past logs,illegal logging of the illegal logging out of the door。The implementation and execution of the bill,It will provide customers in China to provide customers with a proof and legitimacy proof of the source of wood required by customers,Including the source of wood、Tree species information,Evaluate and reduce information such as illegal logging wood risk。This is for the EU、The United States、Chinese manufacturers in markets such as Australia are particularly useful。

  Third is the increase in the export control of logs.Russia increases the export control of logs,Especially broad -leaved material,Some Chinese importers have already felt the change,from2015From the beginning of the year,柞、The customs clearance time of logs and other logs such as water song will become longer,The number of imports has been greatly affected,At the same time, the price of beylum and water willow will rise significantly。Take water song willow as an example,2015year1Since the month,The total amount of Russian water song willows imported in my country continuously reduced,Import costs continue to increase,The psychological psychology of some importers' holding of goods caused the market price of the raw material market to continue to rise。On the other hand,Due to the good appearance of Russian beef and water,,Many customers name Russian materials,Many processing plants gradually increase the inventory of raw materials,Lead of Russian broad leaf materialVery sought -after on the port.


  Water Qu Liu

  The carbon reserves of some forests in Asia accounted for about global1/7,If the protection measures should be proper,Russia and the Far East Forest can not only provide wood for surrounding countries,and can continue to play the role of the green lungs of the earth,Provide a living environment for many endangered species and local communities。Recent10Over the years,With the comprehensive development of regional resources and the construction of large -scale infrastructure,The ecosystem of the area is unprecedentedly disturbed,Biological diversity is threatened,Regional and cross -border ecological security issues are increasingly prominent。Therefore,At present, the illegal logging of wood in the Far East of Russia has received high attention from the international community and environmental protection organizations。Russia increases its strength to crack down on illegal logging and related trade,It is conducive to protecting the ecological environment of the area,So as to promote the sustainable development of global forest resources。

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